Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused over 3.5 million deaths worldwide and affected more than 160 million people. At least twice as many have been infected but remained asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic. Though initially understood as a respiratory illness, COVID-19 includes central nervous system manifestations mediated by inflammation, cerebrovascular, anoxic and/or viral neurotoxicity mechanisms. Over one third of patients with COVID-19 develop neurologic problems during the acute phase of the illness, including loss of sense of smell or taste, seizures, and stroke. In a portion of affected persons, damage or functional changes to the brain result in chronic sequelae including and mounting evidence indicates that cognitive and neuropsychiatric complications may be independent from the severity of the original pulmonary illness. It behooves the scientific and medical community to attempt to understand the molecular and/or systemic factors linking COVID-19 to neurologic illness, both short and long term. This manuscript describes what is known so far in terms of links between COVID-19, the brain, neurological symptoms, and Alzheimer’s Disease and related dementia, with a focus on risk factors and possible molecular, inflammatory, and viral pathways. It also provides an extensive description of the Alzheimer’s Association Consortium on Chronic Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of SARSCoV-2 infection (CNS SC2) harmonized methodology to address these questions in a worldwide network of researchers and institutions .
|Journal||Alzheimer's and Dementia: Translational Research and Clinical Interventions|
|State||Published - 2021|
Bibliographical noteFull list of authors:
52. Gabriel A. de Erausquin, Heather Snyder, Traolach S. Brugha, Sudha Seshadri, Maria Carrillo, Rajesh Sajar, Yueqin Huang, Charles Newton, Richard Lipton, Kameshwar Prasad, Mindy Katz, Peter Fox, Carlos Cruchaga, Ole Mors, Giovanni D’Avossa, John Bankart, Akram Hosseini, Carmela Tartaglia, Charlotte Teunissen, Krister Håkanson, Perminder Sachdev, Ingmar Skoog, Mohammad Zia Katschu, Galit Weinstein, John Blangero, Gabriela Gonzalez-Aleman,George D. Vavougios, M. Sriram Iyengar, Vincenzina Lo Re, Filippo Martinelli Boneschi, Golo Kroenenberg, Timothy Girard, Abdul Majid, Nandini Chakraborty, Ekkehart Staufenberg, Hector Gonzalez, Alfredo Ramirez, Jacques Hugon, Paul Edison, Elizabeta Mukaetova-Ladinska, Rachel Jenkins, Dan J. Stein, Rufus Akinyemi, Venos Mavreas, Mirjam Geerlings, William T. Longstreth, Paul Mullins, Alberto Salmoraighi, Carol Brayne, Heike Hesse, Igor Zwir, Vasantha Padma, Ovais Wadoo, Srishti Shreshta, Debby Tsuang, Nino Valishvili, Sophia Wang, Vibuthi Patel, Anand Pria, Sarah Williams Blangero, Gladys Maestre, Agustin Ruiz, Luis I. Brusco, Guillermo Rivera, Rodrigo Becerra, Sylvia Kaaya, Pascal Felix, Carla Gallo, Vijayalakshmi Ravindranath, Sebastian Koehler, Solomon Teferra, Juan M. Santos, Agustín Yécora, Catterina Ferreccio, Dickens Akena, Antonio Caballero, Timothy M. Hughes, Prabha Siidarth, Jennifer Manly, Mariana Figueredo-Aguiar, Kaarin Anstey, Josheph Kambeitz, Hidenori Arai, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Masahito Yamada, Takeshi Iwatsubo, Takashi Yamamura, Norrina Allen, Emily B. Levitan, Stella Panos.