Children’s and adolescents’ rising animal-source food intakes in 1990–2018 were impacted by age, region, parental education and urbanicity

Global Dietary Database

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Animal-source foods (ASF) provide nutrition for children and adolescents’ physical and cognitive development. Here, we use data from the Global Dietary Database and Bayesian hierarchical models to quantify global, regional and national ASF intakes between 1990 and 2018 by age group across 185 countries, representing 93% of the world’s child population. Mean ASF intake was 1.9 servings per day, representing 16% of children consuming at least three daily servings. Intake was similar between boys and girls, but higher among urban children with educated parents. Consumption varied by age from 0.6 at <1 year to 2.5 servings per day at 15–19 years. Between 1990 and 2018, mean ASF intake increased by 0.5 servings per week, with increases in all regions except sub-Saharan Africa. In 2018, total ASF consumption was highest in Russia, Brazil, Mexico and Turkey, and lowest in Uganda, India, Kenya and Bangladesh. These findings can inform policy to address malnutrition through targeted ASF consumption programmes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)305-319
Number of pages15
JournalNature Food
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank the Global Dietary Database Consortium for sharing and harmonizing their dietary surveys in accordance with the Global Dietary Database methods. This study was supported by grants from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1176681; PI D.M.) and from the American Heart Association (20POST35200069; PI V.M.). The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation contributed to study design during the grant application process; the funders otherwise had no role in data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

Funding Information:
V.M. reports a research grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, outside the submitted work. P.W. reports research grants and contracts from the United States Agency for International Development and personal fees from the Global Panel on Agriculture and Food Systems for Nutrition, outside the submitted work. J.Z., J.R. and P.S. report research funding from Nestle, outside the submitted work. J.C. reports research funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the United States Agency for International Development, outside the submitted work. R.M. reports grants from National Institute of Health, Nestle, and Danone, personal fees from Bunge, Development Initiatives, outside the submitted work. D.M. reports research funding from the National Institutes of Health and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; personal fees from GOED, Bunge, Indigo Agriculture, Motif FoodWorks, Amarin, Acasti Pharma, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, America’s Test Kitchen, and Danone; scientific advisory board member for Brightseed, DayTwo, Elysium Health, Filtricine, HumanCo, and Tiny Organics; and chapter royalties from UpToDate, all outside the submitted work. The other authors declare no competing interests.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science


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