Chemical water stability in optimal operation of water distribution systems with blended desalinated water

Avi Ostfeld, Elad Salomons, Ori Lahav

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This work presents a model for the inclusion of chemical water stability in optimizing the operation of water distribution systems. When desalinated water is mixed with surface water and/or groundwater, the blend can become chemically unstable. Such a state can cause the phenomena of "red water," an increase in corrosion rates, and a reduction in disinfection efficiency. In this study, a methodology is developed that links a genetic algorithm, a hydraulic and water quality extended period simulator, a numerical scheme for computing the calcium carbonate precipitation potential (CCPP) [the quantitative measure of the precise thermodynamic potential of a solution to precipitate (or dissolve) CaCO3(s)], and the pH of the water. The model minimizes the cost of pumping and treatment subject to quantities, pressures, CCPP, and pH constraints. Two example applications are utilized for demonstrating the methodology capabilities. Although the model provides a new tool for the explicit inclusion of chemical water stability in optimal operation of water distribution systems, it overlooks variations in pump efficiency at operational points, does not constrain the number of pump switches, the minimum pump operation and off times, the durations between pump start and shutoff, and the plant or source capacity. Those limitations should be considered in possible extensions of this study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)531-541
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Water Resources Planning and Management - ASCE
Issue number6
StatePublished - 16 Dec 2011


  • Chemical water stability
  • Desalination
  • Genetic algorithm
  • Operation
  • Optimization
  • Water distribution systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


Dive into the research topics of 'Chemical water stability in optimal operation of water distribution systems with blended desalinated water'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this