Changes in smoking habits of smokers under bombing by rockets

L. Keinan-Boker, T. Enav, T. Rozentraub, T. Shohat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BackgroundStress is known to impact smoking. This survey assessed changes in smoking behaviour of smokers in Southern Israel during a military operation (December 2008-January 2009) that exposed several civilian communities to intensive rocket bombing and acute stress. Methods Households with an active land telephone line in Jewish Gaza vicinity communities were sampled. Inclusion criteria were age (18+ years) and being a daily or an occasional smoker. A telephone interview was carried out, focusing on socio-demographic characteristics and change in smoking behaviour during the military operation. Personal, demographic and circumstantial correlates of smoking behaviour were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A total of 425 smokers took part in the survey. Most (85%) reported being daily smokers, and smoked, on average, 10-20 cigarettes/day before the operation. During the operation, 38% of the smokers changed their smoking habits and most (88%) reported higher than usual smoking rates. Correlates significantly associated with higher smoking during the operation were sex (female), education (lower) and not working due to the operation. Conclusions Exposure to acute stress has an impact on smoking rates, especially in certain subgroups of smokers. Relevant smoking cessation interventions should address the special needs of smokers exposed to stressful circumstances.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55-62
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Public Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2011


  • Israel
  • military operation
  • rocket bombing
  • smoking behaviour
  • stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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