The risk of bioterrorism in Israel has been perceived in the last few decades as a very serious threat. Maintaining preparedness for both natural and human-made biological events poses a great challenge to the healthcare system. The Israeli model for emergency preparedness is based on five main components: (1) comprehensive contingency planning, (2) command of operations, (3) central control, (4) coordination and cooperation, and (5) capacity building of healthcare personnel. The response for all types of emergencies is based on the all-hazards approach. Three main legal frameworks facilitate effective management of the healthcare system during times of emergency, including the Public Health Ordinance (1940), the Civil Defense Law (1951) and the National Health Insurance Act (1995). These allow for great flexibility and wide authority of the health care leaders to manage responses to communicable diseases, pandemics and bioterror events.