Calibration-Free Mobile Eye-Tracking Using Corneal Imaging

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In this paper, we present and evaluate a calibration-free mobile eye-traking system. The system’s mobile device consists of three cameras: an IR eye camera, an RGB eye camera, and a front-scene RGB camera. The three cameras build a reliable corneal imaging system that is used to estimate the user’s point of gaze continuously and reliably. The system auto-calibrates the device unobtrusively. Since the user is not required to follow any special instructions to calibrate the system, they can simply put on the eye tracker and start moving around using it. Deep learning algorithms together with 3D geometric computations were used to auto-calibrate the system per user. Once the model is built, a point-to-point transformation from the eye camera to the front camera is computed automatically by matching corneal and scene images, which allows the gaze point in the scene image to be estimated. The system was evaluated by users in real-life scenarios, indoors and outdoors. The average gaze error was 1.6∘ indoors and 1.69∘ outdoors, which is considered very good compared to state-of-the-art approaches.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1237
Issue number4
StatePublished - 15 Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 by the authors.


  • auto calibration
  • corneal imaging
  • eye tracking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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