The study examined bidirectional relationships between three key resources of resilience: hope, optimism, and social support, and a range of trauma-related symptoms (posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety) among injured survivors of terror attacks and their spouses (N = 210). A series of actor-partner interdependence models were used to test the bidirectional dyadic associations. The results demonstrate negative associations between resilience resources of the survivors and their spouses and their trauma-related symptoms. Further, the levels of hope and social support reported by the survivors were negatively associated with the trauma-related symptoms experienced by their spouses, whereas the level of optimism reported by the spouses was negatively associated with the trauma-related symptoms experienced by the survivors. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2016 Elsevier Inc.
- Actor-partner interdependence model
- Social support
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Psychology
- Psychology (all)