Serum specimens (n = 161) from 31 persons before and after human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seroconversion were tested for anti-CD4 antibodies, These antibodies were detected by both ELISA and Western blot in 55% (17/31) of subjects when HIV-1 seroconversion was detected and in 26% (8/31) from sera obtained 6-24 months earlier, A decrease in CD4+cell number was associated more with development of anti-CD4 antibodies or peak anti-CD4 antibody activity than with development of anti-HIV-1 antibodies. Quantitative DNA polymerase chain reaction assay of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 7 seroconverters showed evidence of HIV-1 infection in 4 of 4 specimens obtained after HIV-1 seroconversion but was nonreactive for 12 of 12 specimens obtained before HIV-1 seroconversion, including 4 specimens positive for anti-CD4 antibodies by ELISA and Western blot. Therefore, anti-CD4 antibodies are frequently present in the sera of HIV-I-infected persons before and at the time HIV-1 seroconversion is detectable and are associated with a decline in CD4+cell counts, but they are not a marker for HIV-1 infection in seronegative persons.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Received 12 April 1994; revised I August 1994. Presented in part: 93rd general meeting ofthe American Society for Microbiology, Atlanta, May 1993 (abstract T-22). All samples were obtained through procedures approved by the Human Volunteers Research Committee at the University of Maryland or Johns Hopkins University. No author has a commercial or other association that might pose a conflict of interest for the material presented. Grant support: Infectious Diseases Society of America (Burroughs Wellcome Young Investigator Award in Virology to S.K.): National Institutes of Health (AI-32535 and RR-00722). Reprints or correspondence: Dr. Susan Keay, Research Service, VA Medical Center, Room 38-184,10 N. Greene St., Baltimore, MD 21201. • Members are listed after the text.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Infectious Diseases