Assessment of water quality condition and spatiotemporal patterns in selected wetlands of Punjab, India

Yadvinder Singh, Gurdarshan Singh, Jasvirinder Singh Khattar, Sophia Barinova, Jasneet Kaur, Sumit Kumar, Davinder Pal Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Wetlands are one of the most productive aquatic ecosystems on earth, and their water quality is an indicative of their suitability for maintaining various ecosystem services. In this study, different statistical techniques and water quality index (WQI) were employed to access the status and spatiotemporal patterns in water quality of seven selected (two natural and five manmade) wetlands of Punjab. The results revealed that the status of water quality in the selected wetlands was between good and poor during studied seasons (summer, monsoon, and winter) of year 2019. The principal component analysis identified three groups of wetlands with distinct water quality characteristics with spatial patterns: Kahnuwan Chhamb and Keshopur Miani having nearly similar values of pH, total dissolve salts, electrical conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, total alkalinity, bicarbonate and ammonium content; Ropar, Kanjli, and Harike having higher value of nutrients than the other wetlands; and Ranjit Sagar and Nangal with low value of measured water quality characteristics. Further, analysis of variance revealed that all analyzed water quality parameters showed temporal patterns in water quality except water pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, and phosphate content. This comparative study enhanced our knowledge about the spatiotemporal patterns in water quality and in the future will be helpful to the policymakers and concerned authorities for developing better water quality management strategies for these wetlands.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2493-2509
Number of pages17
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


  • Physicochemical parameters
  • Principal component analysis
  • Punjab Ramsar site
  • Spatiotemporal patterns
  • WQI
  • Wetlands

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Environmental Chemistry


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