Sleep is a reversible state that sustains physiological and psychological processes in humans. As well established, individual-level factors, such as stress, smoking, drugs, and caffeine intake, reduce sleep duration and quality. However, studies of the effect of environmental risk factors, such as artificial light at night (ALAN) and noise, on sleep have been infrequent. Using records obtained from the 2017 Social Survey of Israel and combined with ALAN satellite data and various proxies for traffic noise, the present study aimed to determine how the combination of ALAN and traffic noise impact sleep duration and quality in urban areas. The increase of road density at the place of residence reduces average sleep duration by ~4.5% (~18 min.) and increases the frequency of reported sleep difficulties by ~3.5%, all other factors held equal. Similarly, an increase in ALAN exposure reduces average sleep duration by ~3% (~12 min) and increases the frequency of reported sleep difficulties by ~11%. The study also reveals a significant interaction between the two environmental risk factors in question, with the adverse impact of ALAN on sleep quality especially pronounced in high noise exposure areas.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2021 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
- artificial light at night (ALAN)
- social survey
- traffic noise
- urban areas
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physiology (medical)