This secondary analysis explores differences and correlations between handwriting anticipatory awareness (time estimation, expected performance, and expected difficulty) before a paragraph copying task and actual performance time and legibility among adolescents with executive function deficits (EFD) versus neurotypical adolescents. Eighty-one adolescents (10–18 years old; 41 with EFD and daily functioning difficulties as per parent reports) estimated their time, expected performance, and expected difficulty before the paragraph copying task using the Self-Awareness of Performance Questionnaire (SAP-Q). Time duration was assessed using the Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET) software, and legibility was scored using the Handwriting Legibility Scale (HLS). Significant between-group differences were found in actual time duration (ComPET), HLS total score and legibility components, and three SAP-Q questions. Both groups estimated significantly more performance time than their actual performance duration. The adolescents with EFD underestimated their performance before the handwriting task. Significant correlations were found between actual performance, anticipatory awareness, and Executive Function (EF) in both groups. Their performance predictions were significantly correlated with their EF and product’s legibility. The results highlight the potential relationships between anticipatory awareness and actual handwriting performance (time duration and legibility) of adolescents with and without EFD. Further studies may analyze the benefits of focusing on both EF and anticipatory awareness for handwriting improvement among populations with EF deficits.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
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- anticipatory awareness
- executive function
- time duration
- time estimation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health