In the 2016 excavation season of the Akko Tower shipwreck, a ferrous stud-link anchor chain and a rod, both covered with thick encrustation and concretion, were retrieved from the site. The chain links, studs, and rod were analyzed by metallurgical methods, including: radiographic testing, x-ray fluorescence, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, optical emission spectroscopy, and microhardness measurements, in order to determine their composition and microstructure. The links and the rod were made of wrought iron, while the studs were made of gray cast iron with a significant silicon content of 2 wt.%. The welding zone of the links was identified. The chain was end-welded by forge welding, and the stud was fixed mechanically. The design and manufacturing characteristics of the chain are typical of nineteenth century stud-link anchor chain, which supports the dating of the ship. It is suggested that the chain served the secondary anchor of the ship.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The underwater excavations (IAA excavation permits G-23/2012, G-78/2013, G-16/2015 and G-25/2016) and research of the Akko Tower Wreck were supported by the Israel Science Foundation (Grant No. 447/12), the Honor Frost Foundation, and the Rector and Research Authority of the University of Haifa, to whom the authors are grateful. The authors are grateful to J. B. Tresman for the English editing.
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- Cast iron
- Wrought iron
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Metals and Alloys