In her chapter, Akhtar (2011) suggests that animals experience worse physical pain than humans because animals are not endowed with self-consciousness or with consciousness of the passage of time. In this article, I dispute this idea. Instead, I develop a fear/pain criterion of rational behavior that reveals that rats do behave rationally whereas humans in many cases do not. A human applies his or her higher intellectual capability such that at times it increases suffering and at times it decreases suffering.
|Number of pages
|Journal of Mind and Behavior
|Published - 1 Jun 2019
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Institute of Mind and Behavior, Inc.
- Pain and fear
- Suffering in humans and animals
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)