Androstadienone, a chemosignal found in human sweat, increases individualistic behavior and decreases cooperative responses in men

Amir Banner, Idan Frumin, Simone G. Shamay-Tsoory

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A growing body of evidence suggests that humans can communicate socially relevant information, such as aggression, dominance, and readiness for competition, through chemosensory signals. Androstadienone (androsta-4,16,-dien-3-one), a testosterone-derived compound found in men's axillary sweat, is a main candidate for a human pheromone that may convey such information. The current study aimed to investigate whether androstadienone serves as a chemosignaling threat cue to men, thus triggering avoidance behavior during competitive interaction with another man. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study design, 30 healthy, normosmic, heterosexual male participants completed the social orientation paradigm (SOP), a monetary game played against a fictitious partner that allows 3 types of responses to be measured in the context of provocation: an aggressive response, an individualistic withdrawal response, and a cooperative response. Participants completed the SOP task twice, once under exposure to androstadienone and once under exposure to a control solution. The results indicate that androstadienone increased individualistic responses while it decreased cooperative responses. These findings support the role of androstadienone as a threatening signal of dominance that elicits behavioral avoidance and social withdrawal tendencies, possibly as a submissive response.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-196
Number of pages8
JournalChemical Senses
Issue number3
StatePublished - 26 Feb 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


  • Androstadienone
  • Dominance
  • Social chemosignaling
  • Submissiveness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sensory Systems
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Physiology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


Dive into the research topics of 'Androstadienone, a chemosignal found in human sweat, increases individualistic behavior and decreases cooperative responses in men'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this