Current genetic data are equivocal as to whether goat domestication occurred multiple times or was a singular process. We generated genomic data from 83 ancient goats (51 with genome-wide coverage) from Paleolithic to Medieval contexts throughout the Near East. Our findings demonstrate that multiple divergent ancient wild goat sources were domesticated in a dispersed process that resulted in genetically and geographically distinct Neolithic goat populations, echoing contemporaneous human divergence across the region. These early goat populations contributed differently to modern goats in Asia, Africa, and Europe. We also detect early selection for pigmentation, stature, reproduction, milking, and response to dietary change, providing 8000-year-old evidence for human agency in molding genome variation within a partner species.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Supported by ERC Investigator grant 295729-CodeX. Additional support from Science Foundation Ireland Award 12/ERC/B2227. P.M.D. was supported by the HERA Joint Research Programme “Uses of the Past” (CitiGen); and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement no. 649307. A.M. was supported by ERC Consolidator grant 647787-LocalAdaptation. M.D.T. was supported by the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship SCRIBE H2020-MSCA-IF-2016 747424.
2017 © The Authors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas