An approach to understanding sleep and depressed mood in adolescents: person-centred sleep classification

Tamar Shochat, David H. Barker, Katherine M. Sharkey, Eliza Van Reen, Brandy M. Roane, Mary A. Carskadon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Depressive mood in youth has been associated with distinct sleep dimensions, such as timing, duration and quality. To identify discrete sleep phenotypes, we applied person-centred analysis (latent class mixture models) based on self-reported sleep patterns and quality, and examined associations between phenotypes and mood in high-school seniors. Students (n = 1451; mean age = 18.4 ± 0.3 years; 648 M) completed a survey near the end of high-school. Indicators used for classification included school night bed- and rise-times, differences between non-school night and school night bed- and rise-times, sleep-onset latency, number of awakenings, naps, and sleep quality and disturbance. Mood was measured using the total score on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. One-way anova tested differences between phenotype for mood. Fit indexes were split between 3-, 4- and 5-phenotype solutions. For all solutions, between phenotype differences were shown for all indicators: bedtime showed the largest difference; thus, classes were labelled from earliest to latest bedtime as ‘A’ (n = 751), ‘B’ (n = 428) and ‘C’ (n = 272) in the 3-class solution. Class B showed the lowest sleep disturbances and remained stable, whereas classes C and A each split in the 4- and 5-class solutions, respectively. Associations with mood were consistent, albeit small, with class B showing the lowest scores. Person-centred analysis identified sleep phenotypes that differed in mood, such that those with the fewest depressive symptoms had moderate sleep timing, shorter sleep-onset latencies and fewer arousals. Sleep characteristics in these groups may add to our understanding of how sleep and depressed mood associate in teens.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)709-717
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Sleep Research
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 European Sleep Research Society


  • adolescent
  • depression
  • mixture models
  • sleep patterns

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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