This article reports of two studies addressing the meaning of primary and secondary control beliefs for transition to modernity and modern adolescents. Study 1 participants (N = 365) were Malaysian (transition to modernity), and German and North American (modern) adolescents. Study 2 participants (N = 757) were Israeli Druze (transition to modernity) and Israeli Jewish (modern) adolescents. The control beliefs scales employed in the two studies drew from the primary-secondary control beliefs conceptualisation (Rothbaum, Weisz, & Snyder, 1982), shared a similar Likert-type item structure, but differed in operationalisation. Analyses tested two hypotheses: (1) the value mediation hypothesis postulated that transition to modernity adolescents will score higher on secondary control beliefs and modern adolescents will score higher on primary control beliefs; (2) the double transition hypothesis postulated that transition to modernity adolescents will score higher on both primary and secondary control beliefs. Results supported these hypotheses only partly. However, they did show clearly that transition to modernity adolescents endorsed secondary control beliefs more strongly than did modem adolescents. The discussion focuses on possible explanations of inconsistent results. It also suggests that future research should address two issues brought to light: the adaptive value of primary and secondary control beliefs; and the explanatory value of different control types. Both should be studied in historical, developmental, and cultural contexts.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Psychology
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Developmental Neuroscience
- Life-span and Life-course Studies