Achieving twelve-months of intergroup bias reduction: The dual identity-electronic contact (DIEC) experiment

Fiona A. White, Hisham M. Abu-Rayya, Chela Weitzel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This longitudinal experiment addresses a critical gap in the intergroup relations literature by showing that the theory-driven nine-week dual identity E-contact (DIEC) intervention is successful in maintaining a reduction in intergroup bias twelve months post-intervention. Here, 92 Muslim and 96 Christian students completed measures of affective intergroup bias, intergroup anxiety, and outgroup knowledge twelve months after completing either the DIEC or control program. In line with predictions, these main effect analyses revealed that the affective intergroup bias reduction observed among DIEC participants, compared to control participants at two weeks post-intervention was maintained at twelve months post-intervention. Additional analyses investigating religious group differences revealed however that this bias reduction was confined to Muslim DIEC students only. Finally, outgroup friendship was found to continue to moderate, and intergroup anxiety continue to mediate, the effects of the DIEC program on intergroup bias reduction for Muslim students - even with a twelve month absence of cooperative intergroup contact or dual identity curricula. This final and significant piece of empirical information is definitive in addressing the dearth of long-term intergroup bias reduction literature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)158-163
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was generously supported by a Discovery Project Grant from the Australian Research Council ( DP0985598 ) to Fiona White and Hisham Abu-Rayya.


  • Electronic (E)-contact
  • Intergroup bias reduction
  • Intergroup relations
  • Long-term contact

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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