A Tertiary Model for Countering Terrorism in Liberal Democracies: The Case of Israel

Ami Pedahzur, Magnus Ranstorp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Like other studies in the field of counter-terrorism the question underlying this article is to what degree can a democracy lead an effective struggle against terrorism and at the same time uphold its liberal, or even democratic, character? This article seeks to elaborate on the theoretical tools used for answering this question by developing the operational aspects of the 'war model' and 'criminal justice model' in the war against terrorism and then by presenting an 'expanded criminal justice model' to mediate between the two already existing models. This continuum of models is then tested on the Israeli response to Jewish terrorism and possible explanations for the state's decision to move from one model to the other arc presented. One of the central conclusions of the study is that the most successful anti-terrorist campaigns led by Israel against Jewish terrorists were the ones in which the state's authorities did not cross any democratic boundaries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-26
Number of pages26
JournalTerrorism and Political Violence
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Safety Research
  • Political Science and International Relations


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