A significant decrease in the incidence of shigellosis in israel during covid-19 pandemic

Ravit Bassal, Lital Keinan-Boker, Dani Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 and is mostly person-to-person transmitted through respiratory droplets. The implications of the strategies implemented to prevent COVID-19 transmission on other infectious diseases are unclear. We aimed to appraise trends in the incidence of salmonellosis, shigellosis and campylobacteriosis in Israel during COVID-19 pandemic. Positive stool samples for Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter are reported on a monthly basis to the Israel Center for Disease Control from sentinel laboratories, within the framework of a surveillance network of bacterial culture-proven enteric diseases. Age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 of shigellosis, salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis were calculated. Mean rates before and after the local onset of COVID-19 pandemic in Israel were compared and Relative Risk Reduction (RRR) was calculated. Joinpoint was used to evaluate secular trends. The mean age-adjusted incidence rate of shigellosis in March–July 2020 was lower than the rate observed in March–July 2018–2019 (RRR = 86.6%), but also decreased for salmonellosis (RRR = 33.0%) and campylobacteriosis (RRR = 30.0%). Using Joinpoint we have shown that the decrease observed for shigellosis was significantly sharper (Annual Percent Change (APC) = −77.7) between February 2020 and May 2020 than for salmonellosis (APC = −14.0) between July 2019 and April 2020 and for campylobacteriosis (APC = −1.1) between January 2018 and July 2020. The preventive measures applied to reduce transmission of COVID-19, including social distancing and hand washing, were ecologically associated with a decreased risk of bacterial enteric diseases in Israel. The association was strongest for shigellosis, a disease that is mostly person-to-person transmitted, as compared to salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis which are mostly foodborne transmitted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3070
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume18
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2 Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Enteric diseases
  • Incidence
  • Outbreak
  • Trend

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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