A powder preparation kit from the Middle Bronze Age at Megiddo, Israel: Tools and raw materials

Logan Hunt, Mario A.S. Martin, Israel Finkelstein, Steve Weiner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A unique assemblage of tools dating to the Middle Bronze Age was uncovered at Megiddo (Israel). The assemblage included pestles, pounding stones, many worked stones and various colored materials. We used mainly Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in order to identify the bulk materials of the artifacts, as well as the materials adhering to the surfaces of the artifacts. An unusual kaolinite, quartz, calcite and hematite containing compound was used for producing red powder, charcoal for black powder and chalk, shells and bone for white powders. We conclude that the assemblage was a kit used to produce relatively small amounts of colored powders. The possible uses of the kit are discussed, including for decoration of intramural burials found in the immediate vicinity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)667-678
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Archaeological Science: Reports
Volume21
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2018
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We would like to thank Peter Ostrin for his expert help during the excavation and Filipe Natalio for preparing the 3D reconstruction of the perforated basalt artifact. The Megiddo Expedition is conducted under the auspices of Tel Aviv University. Consortium members are the Collège de France, The George Washington University, Purchase College, the Jezreel Valley Regional Project (JVRP), Fuller Theological Seminary and Loyola Marymount University. The Expedition is directed by Israel Finkelstein (Tel Aviv University), Matthew J. Adams (W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research) and Mario A.S. Martin (Tel Aviv University). This study was partially funded by Mr. Mark Weissman and Mr. George Schwartzmann, as well as the Kimmel Center for Archaeological Science, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel.

Funding Information:
We would like to thank Peter Ostrin for his expert help during the excavation and Filipe Natalio for preparing the 3D reconstruction of the perforated basalt artifact. The Megiddo Expedition is conducted under the auspices of Tel Aviv University. Consortium members are the Collège de France, The George Washington University, Purchase College, the Jezreel Valley Regional Project (JVRP), Fuller Theological Seminary and Loyola Marymount University. The Expedition is directed by Israel Finkelstein (Tel Aviv University), Matthew J. Adams (W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research) and Mario A.S. Martin (Tel Aviv University). This study was partially funded by Mr. Mark Weissman and Mr. George Schwartzmann , as well as the Kimmel Center for Archaeological Science, Weizmann Institute of Science , Israel.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd

Keywords

  • Burials
  • Grinding
  • Megiddo
  • Middle Bronze
  • Pigments
  • Red kaolinite
  • Stone tools

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Archaeology
  • Archaeology

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