A modified loosely coupled approach to INS/GPS integration

Itzik Klein, Sagi Filin, Tomer Toledo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A popular INS/GPS integration strategy is the loosely coupled approach, however its main disadvantage lies in its inability to provide measurement updates during periods of partial GPS availability. In such cases the INS navigation solution drifts over time. This paper proposes the construction of fictitious GPS satellites in order to facilitate GPS receiver position and velocity solutions in cases of partial GPS availability. The paper demonstrates the contribution of the proposed approach via several field experiments, in which the introduction of synthetic GPS measurements reduced the navigation errors obtained by the standalone INS and facilitated the classical implementation of loosely coupled integration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-97
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Applied Geodesy
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • INS/GPS integration
  • fictitious GPS satellites
  • modified loosely coupled approach

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)


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