A Latent Class Analysis of Victimization Among Middle and High School Students in California

Ruth Berkowitz, Kris Tunac De Pedro, Tamika D. Gilreath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


School victimization is associated with negative social-emotional outcomes and risky behaviors. Most studies have provided definitions and measures of victimization, depicting a limited characterization of victimization in schools. More nuanced analyses of school victimization are needed to assess the heterogeneous pattern of victimization in schools. The current study explored distinct victimization configurations in a diverse sample of 418,483 middle and high school students in California, utilizing latent class analyses to account for type and frequency of victimization. The results uncover four classes of victimization, including frequent verbal, physical, and sexual victimization; occasional verbal and physical victimization; verbal and sexual victimization; and no victimization. Older age was associated with a lower likelihood of frequent verbal, sexual, and physical victimization and African American youth were more likely to be classified in this class. Females were more likely to be in the verbal and sexual victimization class than males.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)316-333
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of School Violence
Issue number3
StatePublished - 3 Jul 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© , Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • latent class analyses
  • physical victimization
  • school violence
  • sexual victimization
  • verbal victimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality


Dive into the research topics of 'A Latent Class Analysis of Victimization Among Middle and High School Students in California'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this