A dual identity-electronic contact (DIEC) experiment promoting short- and long-term intergroup harmony

Fiona A. White, Hisham M. Abu-Rayya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Existing intergroup harmony programs have been short in length with little long-term evaluation of their true effectiveness. This experiment addresses this limitation through the development and evaluation of a new intergroup harmony program that integrates dual identity and contact tenets. At Time 1, 116 Australian Muslim and 104 Australian Christian first-year high school students attending religiously segregated schools completed pre-test measures of intergroup bias, intergroup anxiety, prejudice, and outgroup knowledge. Eight months later, in the next year of school, these students were allocated to either the nine-week dual identity-electronic or E-contact (DIEC) program that involved Muslim and Christians interacting via a synchronous internet chat tool, or the control condition where they completed the program within their religious groups with no recategorization. All participants completed the same pre-test measures at two weeks (Time 2) and 6-months (Time 3) post-program. At Time 2, for students in the DIEC condition, intergroup bias and intergroup anxiety decreased significantly, and outgroup knowledge increased significantly, compared to the control condition. In the case of intergroup bias, the decrease was maintained at Time 3. Moderation effects of ingroup identification and outgroup friendship, and mediation effects of intergroup anxiety were also found. These encouraging findings highlight that carefully designed E-contact programs can successfully promote intergroup harmony in both the short- and long-term.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)597-608
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Experimental Social Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2012
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was generously supported by a Discovery Project Grant from the Australian Research Council ( DP0985598 ) to Fiona White and Hisham Abu-Rayya.


  • Contact
  • Dual identity recategorization
  • Intergroup relations
  • Minority and majority groups
  • Prejudice reduction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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