A conceptual model (the six mirrors of the classroom) and it's application to teaching and learning about microorganisms

Mahmood Khalil, Reuven Lazarowitz, Rachel Hertz-Lazarowitz

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    In this paper a conceptual model of instruction "the six mirrors of the classroom" used as a frame for teaching a learning topic, the microorganisms are depicted. The paper consists of four sections: (a) the six mirrors of the classroom model (SMC); (b) the SMC as implemented in the expository and cooperative modes of instruction in classrooms and results; (c) a "Journey of Inquiry into the Wonderful World of Microorganisms" (JIWWM), developed according to the Science-Technology-Environment-Peace-Society (STEPS) approach; and (d) teaching and learning the JIWWM, in ninth-grade classes, within the SMC model. The results show that science topic can be taught in the frame of the mirrors of the classroom. When the instructional goals of the teachers used the mirror "1, classroom organization" and mirror "6, pupils' social behavior" and the third ring around the all six mirrors cooperative skills were practiced, academic outcomes were achieved, and attitudes toward environmental preservation and peace improved. The SMC model can serve as a valuable tool for teachers, since it can design their teaching and learning settings in a more controlled environment, in terms of objectives, teachers' and students' social behaviors, and academic outcomes.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)85-100
    Number of pages16
    JournalJournal of Science Education and Technology
    Issue number1
    StatePublished - Feb 2009


    • Inquiry
    • Learning unit microorganisms
    • STEPS (science-technology-environment-peace- society)
    • Six mirrors of the classroom
    • Small group instruction

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Education
    • General Engineering


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