Shipwreck cargo of lead ingots, some marked, discovered off Tel Ashkelon, weighed about four tonnes. C14 analysis of charred wood from an ingot dated it to the 11th–13th centuries AD, Crusader times. Lead isotopic ratios provenanced the ingots to Mont-Lozère, France. Various aspects of the lead trade are discussed, including: lead sources, extraction, casting, lead in the international maritime trade, weight units in medieval trade, prices, transportation, sale and storage, lead cargo and ballast, reconstruction of the wrecking event, salvage after the vessel was wrecked, Ashkelon as a trading coastal town in the 11th–13th centuries AD, and the possible destination of the cargo.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study has been carried out within the INFN project (Iniziativa Specifica) QFT-HEP.
© 2019 The Authors. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology © 2019 The Nautical Archaeology Society.
- Cairo Geniza
- Crusader Period
- Metal trade
- underwater archaeology
ASJC Scopus subject areas