Sequences of the mitochondrial cyt b gene and nuclear IRBP, RAGI, I7, and vWF genes were used to assess the evolutionary history of major lineages of Apodemus, in particular to better understand dispersal between Asia and Europe. Our data show eight extant lineages of Late Tertiary origin: Apodemus agrarius, A. semotus, A. peninsulae, A. speciosus, A. argenteus, A. gurkha, A. mystacinus, and A. sylvaticus. Monophyly of two European lineages (A. mystacinus and A. sylvaticus) and four Asian lineages (A. agrarius, A. semotus, A. peninsulae, and A. speciosus) was confirmed with high bootstrap support. Together with literature data, the available molecular data depict three crucial evolutionary events: (1) initial wide dispersal and subsequent radiation around 6 million years ago, (2) region-specific radiations in Europe and southern China around 2 million years ago, and (3) westward dispersal of A. agrarius to Europe in the Late Quaternary.
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Acknowledgments We are most grateful to K. Tsuchiya and K. Moriwaki for their encouragement and to R. Nakayama for technical support. We also thank J. Luo, Y.-P. Zhang, Y.-X. Wang, X.-L. Jiang, P. Vogel, and S.-H. Han for valuable suggestions. This study was supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japan.
- Late Tertiary
- Molecular phylogeny
- Wood mice
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Molecular Biology