4IR technologies in the Israel Defence Forces: blurring traditional boundaries

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper explores how Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) technologies obscure the traditional boundaries associated with the military realm. As the first examination of the conditions underlying the assimilation of 4IR technologies in Israel’s armed forces, this paper makes several contributions. It expands the knowledge on the military assimilation of 4IR technologies and describes the interaction between military doctrine and technology using current evidence. It also enriches the evolving discussion on the strategic effect of emerging technologies. Finally, it demonstrates how emerging technologies involve neither straightforward spinoff or spin-on processes but a reciprocal transfer of know-how between the military and civilian sectors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)572-593
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Strategic Studies
Issue number4
StatePublished - 7 Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Emerging technologies
  • Israel Defence Forces (IDF)
  • Israel military
  • fourth industrial revolution (4IR)
  • military innovation
  • technology spin-on

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Political Science and International Relations


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